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    Chapter 10- Human Development Across the Life Span
    Language Development pgs. 343-344

    This video is from people I subscribe to on YouTube, epoddle. The father and son have aliases; Coco Bean is the son and approximately three years old. In every video they do a new activity. In this video, he uses examples we learned in class about how a child’s language develops. Coco Bean knows several words and pronounces them clearly. However, there are some mistakes to his language. At 1:32, he said, “Cuz they falled off of the bridge and went into the waterfall.” This is an example of overregularization. ”Overregularizations occur when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply” (Weiten, 2008, p. 344). Coco Bean knew that to make verbs past tense, you add “-ed” to them. He incorrectly made fall past tense by following this grammatical rule instead of saying fell. He is gradually learning these grammar rules because he knows the proper past tense of go is went.

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    Chapter 13- Psychological DisordersObsessive Compulsive Disorder  pg. 454
Leonardo DiCaprio has revealed he struggles with obsessive compulsive disorder. He fights urges to step on gums stains while walking and passing through doorways several times. He fought with his disorder because he didn’t want it taking over his life. However, he starred as Howard Hughes, who also struggled with OCD. While filming, DiCaprio allowed his OCD control him a little bit more than usual. After filming, he had a hard time stopping himself from doing the obsessive compulsive actions he was used to performing (FemaleFirst). 
Obsessions are repeated, anxiety causing thoughts; compulsions are ritualized behaviors to relieve the anxiety (Dukewich, personal communication, April 19, 2012). Therefore, OCD is uncontrollable, unwanted thoughts which cause senseless rituals to occur. Many people who struggle with OCD realize the rituals are pointless, but can sometimes not help themselves. 
DiCaprio feels each time he passes a chewing gum stain on the ground, he must step on it so nothing bad will happen. His stylists stated it would take ten minutes to get started because he would walk in and out, step on a gum stain, return, touch the door, and repeat. DiCaprio’s obsession is the thought that something bad will happen if he doesn’t step on the gum stains. He relieves his anxiety by giving in to the compulsion of going back, no matter how far, and stepping on the stain. He realizes this is senseless and often can tell himself “You’re being ridiculous. Nothing bad is going to happen if you keep walking.” At times, he can talk himself out of his compulsions. 

    Chapter 13- Psychological Disorders
    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  pg. 454

    Leonardo DiCaprio has revealed he struggles with obsessive compulsive disorder. He fights urges to step on gums stains while walking and passing through doorways several times. He fought with his disorder because he didn’t want it taking over his life. However, he starred as Howard Hughes, who also struggled with OCD. While filming, DiCaprio allowed his OCD control him a little bit more than usual. After filming, he had a hard time stopping himself from doing the obsessive compulsive actions he was used to performing (FemaleFirst). 

    Obsessions are repeated, anxiety causing thoughts; compulsions are ritualized behaviors to relieve the anxiety (Dukewich, personal communication, April 19, 2012). Therefore, OCD is uncontrollable, unwanted thoughts which cause senseless rituals to occur. Many people who struggle with OCD realize the rituals are pointless, but can sometimes not help themselves. 

    DiCaprio feels each time he passes a chewing gum stain on the ground, he must step on it so nothing bad will happen. His stylists stated it would take ten minutes to get started because he would walk in and out, step on a gum stain, return, touch the door, and repeat. DiCaprio’s obsession is the thought that something bad will happen if he doesn’t step on the gum stains. He relieves his anxiety by giving in to the compulsion of going back, no matter how far, and stepping on the stain. He realizes this is senseless and often can tell himself “You’re being ridiculous. Nothing bad is going to happen if you keep walking.” At times, he can talk himself out of his compulsions. 

  3. Chapter 9- Motivation and Emotion
    Gender Differences in Mate Preferences pg. 309

    (Click on the pictures to view them full-sized.)


    "According to evolutionary theorists, if males were left to their own devices over the course of history, they probably would have shown little interest in long-term mating commitments…" (Weiten, 2008, p. 309). Men look for women who are attractive and are good for child-bearing. Biologically, Males want to have as minimal investment necessary in reproduction and taking care of their offspring, typically. Evolutionarily, males have been seen to choose to mate with many partners who have high reproductive potential. The outcomes of the biological and evolutionary characteristics produce their behavioral actions; males mate with many, young partners and jealousy is triggered by sexual infidelity (Dukewich, personal communication, March 23, 2012). Buss and Smitt found that college men, on average, wanted to have sex with ideally eighteen partners, while females answered the only preferred five partners. (Weiten, 2008).

    As you can see on the second image, across the globe men want to have sex with more partners than women. The survey asked how many partners the individual would want to have in the next thirty years. Out of all ten world regions, men answered with more sexual partners.

    Basically, men want to have more sexual partners. They chose attractive women and want to spread their genes by having many partners with reproduction potential. The comic shows what the average male would answer when asked about having only one mate. The male bird does not want to be tied down to his “wife.” The wife is obviously upset because women choose to have less partners than men. Females prefer men who can provide and make investments in their offspring. Women typically choose older partners with money. 

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    Chapter 7- Human MemoryOverlearning pg. 251
Overlearning is an encoding strategy which uses repetition of information to increase memory (Dukewich, personal communication, February 28, 2012). This can also be referred to as rehearsal. In the example above, if you followed this pattern and tried to play the tune again after two years, you would probably have trouble remembering how to play. However, if you practiced the song every day until you could play it in your sleep, you could continue playing three years or more with hardly any trouble remembering the tune. Repeating an action daily until what you’re learning becomes a habit can keep memories for years (Neurofeedback)! Overlearning is one of the easiest ways to improve everyday memory. The saying “What you don’t use, you’ll lose,” proves true with this strategy. 

    Chapter 7- Human Memory
    Overlearning pg. 251

    Overlearning is an encoding strategy which uses repetition of information to increase memory (Dukewich, personal communication, February 28, 2012). This can also be referred to as rehearsal. In the example above, if you followed this pattern and tried to play the tune again after two years, you would probably have trouble remembering how to play. However, if you practiced the song every day until you could play it in your sleep, you could continue playing three years or more with hardly any trouble remembering the tune. Repeating an action daily until what you’re learning becomes a habit can keep memories for years (Neurofeedback)! Overlearning is one of the easiest ways to improve everyday memory. The saying “What you don’t use, you’ll lose,” proves true with this strategy. 

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    Chapter 11- Personality: Theory, Research, and AssessmentDisplacement pg. 382
Displacement is diverting emotional feelings from their original source to a substitute target (Dukewich, personal communication, April 12, 2012). Instead of actually dealing with the situation, a person will target something else to deal with emotions in reaction to the  first target. Displacement usually concerns anger being blown off on something else, this picture has an oddly different example. Instead of taking the time to mourn, the widow transfers her love for her husband into her love for her cats after his death. She has redirected her emotion of love to a safer place in the cats so she will not have to deal with the loss of her husband. 
This is a defense mechanism which is an unconscious process that protects a person from pain. 

    Chapter 11- Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment
    Displacement pg. 382

    Displacement is diverting emotional feelings from their original source to a substitute target (Dukewich, personal communication, April 12, 2012). Instead of actually dealing with the situation, a person will target something else to deal with emotions in reaction to the  first target. Displacement usually concerns anger being blown off on something else, this picture has an oddly different example. Instead of taking the time to mourn, the widow transfers her love for her husband into her love for her cats after his death. She has redirected her emotion of love to a safer place in the cats so she will not have to deal with the loss of her husband. 

    This is a defense mechanism which is an unconscious process that protects a person from pain. 

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    Chapter Four- Sensation and PerceptionIllusions pg. 124
Perceptual Hypothesis is a guess on how to view a stimulus. In illusions, we receive misleading visual information, but try to make sense of what we’re seeing and guess the correct image. In this picture, one could see either a duck or a rabbit. This happens because there isn’t enough information to force your perceptual system to accept only one of these hypotheses. People who previously know about the experiment are more likely to see what they are expecting (Weiten, 2008).
In the picture, both the duck and the rabbit share the same eye. The duck’s beak is the rabbit’s ears and the rabbit’s leg is the duck’s wing. Since you don’t know what you’re looking for, you can see either one or both objects. The picture actually isn’t necessarily either one, but your brain has to make sense of things, so it forms the image. 

    Chapter Four- Sensation and Perception
    Illusions pg. 124

    Perceptual Hypothesis is a guess on how to view a stimulus. In illusions, we receive misleading visual information, but try to make sense of what we’re seeing and guess the correct image. In this picture, one could see either a duck or a rabbit. This happens because there isn’t enough information to force your perceptual system to accept only one of these hypotheses. People who previously know about the experiment are more likely to see what they are expecting (Weiten, 2008).

    In the picture, both the duck and the rabbit share the same eye. The duck’s beak is the rabbit’s ears and the rabbit’s leg is the duck’s wing. Since you don’t know what you’re looking for, you can see either one or both objects. The picture actually isn’t necessarily either one, but your brain has to make sense of things, so it forms the image. 

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    Chapter 5- Variations in Consciousness
    Sleep talking and the stages of sleep pg. 164

    (Also, it’s kind of hard to hear. You might want to turn up the volume.)

    This is my father and a friend of mine talking at around 11:30pm. My dad is 100% asleep and had been for nearly an hour. Recording someone sleepwalking is quite easy, but hard to prove. I promise to you, he is sleeping. He doesn’t remember this happening. He actually doesn’t know I recorded him, which was the only way I could use it in my project. I have hundreds of stories of him sleepwalking, and all are equally hilarious. My dad sometimes become different people. Just the other day I was asking him a question and he answered with “I’m not your father but I’ll answer your question…poor kid.” One time he thought the year was 1994 and did not know anything about the Internet or certain TV shows. It is a great entertainment for our friends. 

    Somnambulism, or sleepwalking, occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep (Weiten, 2008, p. 164). In our book, it says these episodes last from 15 seconds to 30 minutes. However, my dad has talked and walked for up to two hours until finally sleeping soundly. 

    We have had an issue with rats in our house, which is why he was talking about the rat poisoning. Also, he is a preacher so he quotes the bible when saying “No one knows the time or the hour…” Sometimes, he will cuss quite a bit while he is sleeping, and we say he’s just holding in what he really wants to say all day and lets it go while he’s asleep.

    In our textbooks, it states that sleep deprivation causes a person to immediately go into the REM stages of sleep (Weiten, 2008). I believe Daddy’s sleepwalking causes sleep deprivation because he is not really resting, and his brain is still activated and alert. He falls asleep in less than a second after laying down, which isn’t normal. It usually takes 20-30 minutes for the average person to fall asleep. When I noticed he had fallen asleep, I looked at his eyes and they were instantly in REM. I don’t know if he does that every night or just the time I happened to notice, but I think his sleeping is all messed up because of his somnambulism. 

    Dr. Dukewich, if you have any opinions on his sleeping habits, please email them to me at tnowman42@students.tntech.edu. We are really interested in trying to figure out what can help reduce the amount of time sleepwalking and increase quality sleeping time. 

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    The Office - Pavlov's dog from Rauno Villberg on Vimeo.

    Chapter 6- Learning
    Classical Conditioning pg. 190


    "Classical Conditioning is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus" (Weiten, 2008, p. 188). Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, tested this theory by using meat powder, a dog salivating, and a bell tone. Before the conditioning, there is an neutral stimulus (the bell) which yields to response and the unconditioned stimulus (the meat powder) which conditions the unconditioned response. Pairing these together on numerous occasions still yield the unconditioned response. However, after the unconditioned stimulus is taking away, the bell ringing still produced the dog’s salivation, meaning the bell has turned into a conditioned stimuli and the dog salivates as a conditioned response. 

    In this video from The Office, Jim hands Dwight an Altoid every time he reboots his computer. After several instances where this happens, Jim restarts his computer and Dwight instinctively holds out his hand to receive the mint. The computer rebooting served as the neutral stimulus, the Altoid was the unconditioned stimulus, and the minty taste Dwight received from the Altoid was the unconditioned response. Dwight had been classically conditioned to receive the Altoid. In the final part, the rebooting sound Jim’s computer made served as a conditioned stimulus and Dwight’s need for a mint was the conditioned response. 

    In regular English, Classical Conditioning is where you take something completely unrelated and continuously pair it with a stimulus that does evoke a reaction. After this pairing multiple times, a person associates the unrelated and related stimuli together so that even when only the unrelated stimulus is given, the original reaction occurs and the person will experience the same symptoms as if they had been given the unconditioned stimulus. 

About

My name is Taylor Bowman. I am eighteen years old and a freshman at Tennessee Tech. This Tumblr is a project for my Psychology 1010 class with Professor Tammy Dukewich. Mainly this is for her, but I am really interested in Psychology so if you have any questions or comments please feel free to ask or tell. :) I hope you enjoy!

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